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Q421. Which three options are characteristics of a Type 10 LSA? (Choose three.)
A. It is an area-local, opaque LSA.
B. Data is flooded to all routers in the LSA scope.
C. It is used for traffic-engineering extensions to OSPF.
D. It is a link-local, opaque LSA.
E. Data is flooded only to the routers in the LSA scope that understand the data.
F. It is used for traffic-engineering extensions to LDP.
Q422. What is the new designation for the MPLS EXP (experimental) bits?
A. QoS bits
B. traffic class bits
C. flow bits
D. precedence bits
To avoid misunderstanding about how this field may be used, it has become increasingly necessary to rename this field. This document changes the name of the EXP field to the "Traffic Class field" ("TC field"). In doing so, it also updates documents that define the current use of the EXP field.
Q423. Which type of port would have root guard enabled on it?
A. A root port
B. An alternate port
C. A blocked port
D. A designated port
The root guard feature provides a way to enforce the root bridge placement in the network. The root guard ensures that the port on which root guard is enabled is the designated port. Normally, root bridge ports are all designated ports, unless two or more ports of the root bridge are connected together. If the bridge receives superior STP Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) on a root guard-enabled port, root guard moves this port to a root-inconsistent STP state. This root-inconsistent state is effectively equal to a listening state. No traffic is forwarded across this port. In this way, the root guard enforces the position of the root bridge.
Q424. Refer to the exhibit.
Service provider SP 1 is running the MPLS-VPN service. The MPLS core network has MP-BGP configured with RR-1 as route reflector. What will be the effect on traffic between PE1 and PE2 if router P1 goes down?
A. No effect, because all traffic between PE1 and PE2 will be rerouted through P2.
B. No effect, because P1 was not the only P router in the forwarding path of traffic.
C. No effect, because RR-1 will find an alternative path for MP-BGP sessions to PE-1 and PE-2.
D. All traffic will be lost because RR-1 will lose the MP-BGP sessions to PE-1 and PE-2.
If the connection to the route reflector goes down, then routes from PE-1 will not get advertised to PE2, and vice versa. Route reflectors are critical in an MPLS VPN such as the one shown, which is why it is a best practice to have multiple route reflectors in this kind of network.
Q425. Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is true?
A. The command ip multicast rpf multitopology is missing from the configuration.
B. Multitopology routing for multicast has been enabled for IS-IS.
C. This output is invalid.
D. The command mpls traffic-eng multicast-intact is configured on this router.
The following is sample output from the show ip rpf command in a Multi-Topology Routing (MTR) routing environment. In Cisco IOS releases that support MTR, the “RPF topology” field was introduced to indicate which RIB topology is being used for the RPF lookup. For the “RPF topology” field in this example, the first topology listed (ipv4 multicast base) indicates where the nexthop of the RPF lookup is being conducted and the second topology listed (ipv4 unicast data) indicates where the route originated from.
Router# show ip rpf 10.30.30.32
RPF information for ? (10.30.30.32)
RPF interfacE. Ethernet1/0
RPF neighbor: ? (10.1.1.32)
RPF route/mask: 10.30.30.32/32
RPF typE. unicast (ospf 100)
Doing distance-preferred lookups across tables
RPF topology: ipv4 multicast base, originated from ipv4 unicast data
The table below describes the fields shown in the displays.
Table 15 show ip rpf Field Descriptions
RPF information for
Hostname and source address for which RPF information is displayed.
For the given source, the interface from which the router expects to receive packets.
For the given source, the neighbor from which the router expects to receive packets.
Route number and mask that matched against this source.
Routing table from which this route was obtained, either unicast, MBGP, DVMRP, or static mroutes.
RPF recursion count
The number of times the route is recursively resolved.
Whether RPF was determined based on distance or length of mask.
Using Group Based VRF Select, RPF VRF.
The RPF lookup was based on the group address and the VRF where the RPF lookup is being performed.
The preference value used for selecting the unicast routing metric to the RP announced by the designated forwarder (DF).
Unicast routing metric to the RP announced by the DF.
RIB topology being used for the RPF lookup, and, if originated from a different RIB topology, which RIB topology the route originated from.
Abreast of the times ccie written exam:
Q426. Which two statements about 6VPE are true? (Choose two.)
A. It allows a service provider to use an existing MPLS network to provide VPN services to IPv6 customers.
B. It uses MP-BGP as the carrier protocol to transport IPv6 connectivity.
C. It provides IPv6 connectivity to MPLS-VPN customers when IPv6 overlay tunneling is also configured.
D. It allows a service provider to use an existing MPLS network to provide global addressing to their IPv6 customers.
E. It requires the configuration of a GRE tunnel tagged with a VLAN ID.
F. It allows a service provider to use an existing L2TPv3 network to provide VPN services to IPv6 customers.
The IPv6 MPLS VPN service model is similar to that of IPv4 MPLS VPNs. Service providers who have already deployed MPLS IPv4 VPN services over an IPv4 backbone can deploy IPv6 MPLS VPN services over the same IPv4 backbone by upgrading the PE router IOS version and dual-stack configuration, without any change on the core routers. IPv4 services can be provided in parallel with IPv6 services. IPv6 VPN service is exactly the same as MPLS VPN for IPv4. 6VPE offers the same architectural features as MPLS VPN for IPv4. It offers IPv6 VPN and uses the same components, such as: .
Multiprotocol BGP (MP-BGP) VPN address family .
Route distinguishers .
VPN Routing and Forwarding (VRF) instances .
Site of Origin (SOO) .
Extended community .
Q427. Refer to the exhibit.
Which two statements about the VPN solution are true? (Choose two.)
A. Customer A and customer B will exchange routes with each other.
B. R3 will advertise routes received from R1 to R2.
C. Customer C will communicate with customer A and B.
D. Communication between sites in VPN1 and VPN2 will be blocked.
E. R1 and R2 will receive VPN routes advertised by R3.
+ VPN1 exports 10:1 while VPN3 imports 10:1 so VPN3 can learn routes of VPN1.
+ VNP1 imports 10:1 while VNP3 export 10:1 so VNP1 can learn routes of VPN3.
-> Customer A can communicate with Customer C
+ VPN2 exports 20:1 while VPN3 imports 20:1 so VPN3 can learn routes of VPN2.
+ VPN2 imports 20:1 while VPN3 exports 20:1 so VPN2 can learn routes of VPN3.
-> Customer B can communicate with Customer C
Therefore answer C is correct.
Also answer E is correct because R1 & R2 import R3 routes.
Answer A is not correct because Customer A & Customer B do not import routes which are exported by other router. Customer A & B can only see Customer C.
Answer B is not correct because a router never exports what it has learned through importation. It only exports its own routes.
Answer D is correct because two VPN1 and VPN2 cannot see each other. Maybe in this question there are three correct answers.
Q428. Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is true?
A. The output shows an IPv6 multicast address with link-local scope.
B. The output shows an IPv6 multicast address that is used for unique local sources only.
C. The output shows an IPv6 multicast address that can be used for BIDIR-PIM only.
D. The output shows an IPv6 multicast address with embedded RP.
Q429. Which statement describes the purpose of the Payload Type field in the RTP header?
A. It identifies the signaling protocol.
B. It identifies the codec.
C. It identifies the port numbers for RTP.
D. It identifies the port numbers for RTCP.
PT, Payload Type. 7 bits: Identifies the format of the RTP payload and determines its interpretation by the application. A profile specifies a default static mapping of payload type codes to payload formats. Additional payload type codes may be defined dynamically through non-RTP means. An RTP sender emits a single RTP payload type at any given time; this field is not intended for multiplexing separate media streams. A full list of codecs and their payload type values can be found at the link below:
Q430. Refer to the exhibit.
If the network switch is configured as shown, which two statements about network traffic are true? (Choose two.)
A. Traffic enters the shaper on a FIFO basis.
B. Traffic enters the shaper on a weighted fair queueing basis.
C. Drop behavior is random for traffic in excess of 6 Mbps.
D. Voice traffic is given priority until it reaches 1.5 Mbps.
E. Voice traffic is given priority until it reaches 6 Mbps.
A. Serial interfaces at E1 (2.048 Mbps) and below use weighted fair queueing (WFQ) by default. Other interfaces use first-in first-out (FIFO) by default.
D. Voice traffic is given priority up to 25% of the shape average value, which is 6000000, so 25% of 6 Mbps is 1.5 Mbps.