400 101 ccie (211 to 220)

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Q211. Which command sets the maximum segment size for a TCP packet initiated from a router? 

A. ip mtu 

B. ip tcp adjust-mss 

C. ip tcp mss 

D. ip tcp window-size 

Answer:


Q212. Which BGP feature enables you to install a backup path in the forwarding table? 

A. soft reconfiguration 

B. prefix independent convergence 

C. route refresh 

D. synchronization 

Answer:

Explanation: 

To install a backup path into the forwarding table and provide prefix independent convergence (PIC) in case of a PE-CE link failure, use the additional-paths install backup command in an appropriate address family configuration mode. To prevent installing the backup path, use the no form of this command. To disable prefix independent convergence, use the disable keyword. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/crs/software/crs_r4-2/routing/command/reference/b_routing_cr42crs/b_routing_cr42crs_chapter_01.html 


Q213. Which technology can be affected when switches are used that do not support jumbo frames? 

A. 802.1x 

B. BFD 

C. OSPFv3 

D. 802.1q 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The 802.1Q tag is 4 bytes. Therefore, the resulting Ethernet frame can be as large as 1522 bytes. If jumbo frames are not supported, then typically the MTU on an Ethernet link needs to be lowered to 1496 to support this extra 802.1Q tag. 


Q214. Refer to the exhibit. 

Which route type is displayed when you enter the command show ip route supernets-only on a device with this configuration? 

A. Connected 

B. OSPF 

C. RIP 

D. EIGRP 

E. An empty route set 

Answer:

Explanation: 

This command shows supernets only; it does not show subnets. In this case, the routing table would contain the 10.0.0.0/24 subnet, but not the 10.0.0.0/8 supernet. 


Q215. Refer to the exhibit. 

Why is the loopback 0 interface of R4 missing in the routing table of R2? 

A. R2 is configured as a route reflector client. 

B. There is no peering between R2 and R3. 

C. The next hop is not reachable from R2. 

D. The route originated within the same AS. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

In the “show ip bgp” output we see that there is no peering session between R2 and R3. Since R3 is the route reflector here, R3 would reflect routes advertised from R4 to R2, but the peer needs to be established first. 


Q216. Which three statements about RIP timers are true? (Choose three.) 

A. The default update timer is 30 seconds. 

B. The default invalid timer is 180 seconds. 

C. The default holddown timer is 180 seconds. 

D. The default flush timer is 60 seconds. 

E. The default scan timer is 60 seconds. 

F. The default hello timer is 5 seconds. 

Answer: A,B,C 

Explanation: 

The routing information protocol uses the following timers as part of its operation: 

Update Timer 

Invalid Timer 

Flush Timer 

Holddown Timer 

Update Timer 

The update timer controls the interval between two gratuitous Response Message. By default the value is 30 seconds. The response message is broadcast to all its RIP enabled interface. 

Invalid Timer 

The invalid timer specifies how long a routing entry can be in the routing table without being updated. This is also called as expiration Timer. By default, the value is 180 seconds. After the timer expires the hop count of the routing entry will be set to 16, marking the destination as unreachable. 

Flush Timer 

The flush timer controls the time between the route is invalidated or marked as unreachable and removal of entry from the routing table. By default the value is 240 seconds. This is 60 seconds longer than Invalid timer. So for 60 seconds the router will be advertising about this unreachable route to all its neighbors. This timer must be set to a higher value than the invalid timer. 

Hold-down Timer 

The hold-down timer is started per route entry, when the hop count is changing from lower value to higher value. This allows the route to get stabilized. During this time no update can be done to that routing entry. This is not part of the RFC 1058. This is Cisco's implementation. The default value of this timer is 180 seconds. 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Routing_Information_Protocol#Timers 


Q217. Which IPv6 tunneling mechanism requires a service provider to use one of its own native IPv6 blocks to guarantee that its IPv6 hosts will be reachable? 

A. 6rd tunneling 

B. automatic 6to4 tunneling 

C. NAT-PT tunneling 

D. ISATAP tunneling 

E. manual ipv6ip tunneling 

F. automatic 4to6 tunneling 

Answer:


Q218. Which statement about MSS is true? 

A. It is negotiated between sender and receiver. 

B. It is sent in all TCP packets. 

C. It is 20 bytes lower than MTU by default. 

D. It is sent in SYN packets. 

E. It is 28 bytes lower than MTU by default. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The maximum segment size (MSS) is a parameter of the Options field of the TCP header that specifies the largest amount of data, specified in octets, that a computer or communications device can receive in a single TCP segment. It does not count the TCP header or the IP header. The IP datagram containing a TCP segment may be self-contained within a single packet, or it may be reconstructed from several fragmented pieces; either way, the MSS limit applies to the total amount of data contained in the final, reconstructed TCP segment. The default TCP Maximum Segment Size is 536. Where a host wishes to set the maximum segment size to a value other than the default, the maximum segment size is specified as a TCP option, initially in the TCP SYN packet during the TCP handshake. The value cannot be changed after the connection is established. 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_segment_size 


Q219. Refer to the exhibit. 

If you change the Spanning Tree Protocol from pvst to rapid-pvst, what is the effect on the interface Fa0/1 port state? 

A. It transitions to the listening state, and then the forwarding state. 

B. It transitions to the learning state and then the forwarding state. 

C. It transitions to the blocking state, then the learning state, and then the forwarding state. 

D. It transitions to the blocking state and then the forwarding state. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

First, the port will transition to the blocking state, immediately upon the change, then it will transition to the new RSTP states of learning and forwarding. 

Port States 

There are only three port states left in RSTP that correspond to the three possible operational states. The 802.1D disabled, blocking, and listening states are merged into a unique 802.1w discarding state. 

STP (802.1D) Port State 

RSTP (802.1w) Port State 

Is Port Included in Active Topology? 

Is Port Learning MAC Addresses? 

Disabled 

Discarding 

No 

No 

Blocking 

Discarding 

No 

No 

Listening 

Discarding 

Yes 

No 

Learning 

Learning 

Yes 

Yes 

Forwarding 

Forwarding 

Yes 

Yes 


Q220. Which algorithm heavily influenced the algorithm used by path-vector protocols? 

A. Bellman-Ford 

B. SPF 

C. DUAL 

D. Spanning-Tree 

E. Adaptive 

F. Deflection 

Answer:

Explanation: 

A path vector protocol is a computer network routing protocol which maintains the path information that gets updated dynamically. Updates which have looped through the network and returned to the same node are easily detected and discarded. This algorithm is sometimes used in Bellman–Ford routing algorithms to avoid "Count to Infinity" problems. 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Path_vector_protocol 


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