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Exam Code: 400-101
Exam Name: CCIE Routing and Switching (v5.0)
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Q301. Which three statements about EIGRP and BFD are true? (Choose three.)
A. BFD is independent of the routing protocol, so it can be used as a generic failure detection mechanism for EIGRP.
B. Some parts of BFD can be distributed to the data plane, so it can be less CPU-intensive than reduced timers, which exist wholly at the control plane.
C. Reduced EIGRP timers have an absolute minimum detection timer of 1-2 seconds; BFD can provide sub-second failure detection.
D. BFD is tied to specific routing protocols and can be used for generic fault detection for the OSPF, EIGRP, and BGP routing protocols.
E. BFD is dependent on the EIGRP routing protocol, so it can be used as a specific failure detection mechanism.
F. BFD resides on the control plane, so it is less CPU-intensive than if it resided on the data plane.
There are several advantages to implementing BFD over reduced timer mechanisms for routing protocols:
. Although reducing the EIGRP, IS-IS, and OSPF timers can result in minimum detection timer of one to two seconds, BFD can provide failure detection in less than one second.
. Because BFD is not tied to any particular routing protocol, it can be used as a generic and consistent failure detection mechanism for EIGRP, IS-IS, and OSPF.
. Because some parts of BFD can be distributed to the data plane, it can be less CPU-intensive than the reduced EIGRP, IS-IS, and OSPF timers, which exist wholly at the control plane.
Q302. Which two methods change the IP MTU value for an interface? (Choose two.)
A. Configure the default MTU.
B. Configure the IP system MTU.
C. Configure the interface MTU.
D. Configure the interface IP MTU.
An IOS device configured for IP+MPLS routing uses three different Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) values: The hardware MTU configured with the mtu interface configuration command
. The IP MTU configured with the ip mtu interface configuration command
. The MPLS MTU configured with the mpls mtu interface configuration command
The hardware MTU specifies the maximum packet length the interface can support … or at least that's the theory behind it. In reality, longer packets can be sent (assuming the hardware interface chipset doesn't complain); therefore you can configure MPLS MTU to be larger than the interface MTU and still have a working network. Oversized packets might not be received correctly if the interface uses fixed-length buffers; platforms with scatter/gather architecture (also called particle buffers) usually survive incoming oversized packets.
IP MTU is used to determine whether am IP packet forwarded through an interface has to be fragmented. It has to be lower or equal to hardware MTU (and this limitation is enforced). If it equals the HW MTU, its value does not appear in the running configuration and it tracks the changes in HW MTU. For example, if you configure ip mtu 1300 on a Serial interface, it will appear in the running configuration as long as the hardware MTU is not equal to 1300 (and will not change as the HW MTU changes). However, as soon as the mtu 1300 is configured, the ip mtu 1300 command disappears from the configuration and the IP MTU yet again tracks the HW MTU.
Q303. Which two statements about 802.1Q tunneling are true? (Choose two.)
A. It requires a system MTU of at least 1504 bytes.
B. The default configuration sends Cisco Discovery Protocol, STP, and VTP information.
C. Traffic that traverses the tunnel is encrypted.
D. It is supported on private VLAN ports.
E. MAC-based QoS and UDLD are supported on tunnel ports.
F. Its maximum allowable system MTU is 1546 bytes.
Q304. Refer to the exhibit.
Video Source S is sending interactive video traffic to Video Receiver R. Router R1 has multiple routing table entries for destination R. Which load-balancing mechanism on R1 can cause out-of-order video traffic to be received by destination R?
A. per-flow load balancing on R1 for destination R
B. per-source-destination pair load balancing on R1 for destination R
C. CEF load balancing on R1 for destination R
D. per-packet load balancing on R1 for destination R
Per-packet load balancing guarantees equal load across all links, however potentially the packets may arrive out-of-order at the destination as differential delay may exist within the network.
Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/modules/ps2033/prod_technical_reference09186 a00800afeb7.html
Q305. EIGRP allows configuration of multiple MD5 keys for packet authentication to support easy rollover from an old key to a new key. Which two statements are true regarding the usage of multiple authentication keys? (Choose two.)
A. Received packets are authenticated by the key with the smallest key ID.
B. Sent packets are authenticated by all valid keys, which means that each packet is replicated as many times as the number of existing valid keys.
C. Received packets are authenticated by any valid key that is chosen.
D. Sent packets are authenticated by the key with the smallest key ID.
Suppose two routers are connected with each other via Fa0/0 interfaces and they are configured to authenticate via MD5. Below is a simple configuration on both routers so that they will work:
Router1(config)#key chain KeyChainR1
Router2(config)#key chain KeyChainR2
Apply these key chains to R1 & R2:
Router1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router1(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 1 md5
Router1(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 1 KeyChainR1
Router2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router2(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 1 md5
Router2(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 1 KeyChainR2
There are some rules to configure MD5 authentication with EIGRP:
+ The key chain names on two routers do not have to match (in this case the name “KeyChainR1 & “KeyChainR2 do not match)
+ The key number and key-string on the two potential neighbors must match (for example “key 1 & “key-string FirstKey” must match on “key 1” & “key-string FirstKey” of neighboring router) Also some facts about MD5 authentication with EIGRP
+ When sending EIGRP messages the lowest valid key number is used -> D is correct.
+ When receving EIGRP messages all currently configured valid keys are verified but the lowest valid one will be used -> Although answer C does not totally mention like that but it is the most suitable answer because A and B are totally wrong. Answer A is not correct because we need valid key to authenticate. As mentioned above, although answer C is not totally correct but it puts some light on why
answer B is not correct: each packet is NOT “replicated as many times as the number of existing valid keys”. All currently configured valid keys are verified but the lowest valid one will be used.
Q306. You are installing a new device to replace a device that failed. The configuration of the failed device is stored on a networked server, and the new device has an RXBOOT image installed. Under which condition does the streamlined Setup mode fail?
A. The last four bits of the configuration register are not equal to the decimal value 0 or 1.
B. The startup configuration file was deleted.
C. Bit 6 is set in the configuration register.
D. The startup configuration is corrupt.
The lowest four bits of the configuration register (bits 3, 2, 1, and 0) form the boot field. The boot field determines if the router boots manually, from ROM, or from Flash or the network. To change the boot field value and leave all other bits set to their default values, follow these guidelines:
. If you set the configuration register boot field value to 0x0, you must boot the operating system manually with the boot command.
. If you set the configuration register boot field value to 0x1, the router boots using the default ROM software.
. If you set the configuration register boot field to any value from 0x2 to 0xF, the router uses the boot field value to form a default boot filename for booting from a network server. For more information about the configuration register bit settings and default filenames, refer to the appropriate router hardware installation guide.
Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/configfun/command/reference/ffun_r/frf010. html
Q307. DRAG DROP
Drag and drop the OSPFv3 LSA type on the left to the functionality it provides on the right.
Q308. Which BGP feature enables you to install a backup path in the forwarding table?
A. soft reconfiguration
B. prefix independent convergence
C. route refresh
To install a backup path into the forwarding table and provide prefix independent convergence (PIC) in case of a PE-CE link failure, use the additional-paths install backup command in an appropriate address family configuration mode. To prevent installing the backup path, use the no form of this command. To disable prefix independent convergence, use the disable keyword.
Q309. How does EIGRP derive the metric for manual summary routes?
A. It uses the best composite metric of any component route in the topology table.
B. It uses the worst composite metric of any component route in the topology table.
C. It uses the best metric vectors of all component routes in the topology table.
D. It uses the worst metric vectors of all component routes in the topology table.
For example if your router has a routing table like this:
D 192.168.8.0/24 [90/2632528] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0
D 192.168.9.0/24 [90/2323456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0
D 192.168.10.0/24 [90/2195456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0
D 192.168.11.0/24 [90/2323456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:00:12, Serial0/0
Now suppose you want to manually summarize all the routes above, you can use this command (on the router that advertised these routes to our router):
Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 1 192.168.8.0 255.255.248.0
After that the routing table of your router will look like this:
D 192.168.8.0/21 [90/2195456] via 192.168.0.1, 00:01:42, Serial0/0
And we can see the manual summary route takes the smallest metric of the specific routes.
Q310. Refer to the exhibit.
If a Layer 3 switch running OSPF in a VRF-lite configuration reports this error, which action can you take to correct the problem?
A. Set mls cef maximum-routes in the global configuration.
B. Add the vrf-lite capability to the OSPF configuration.
C. Upgrade the Layer 3 switch to a model that can support more routes.
D. Configure the control plane with a larger memory allocation to support the Cisco Express Forwarding Information Base.
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